Polyatomic ions are ions which consist of more than one atom. For example, nitrate ion, NO 3 -contains one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. The atoms in a polyatomic ion are usually covalently bonded to one another, and therefore stay together as a single, charged unit. Rule 1. The cation is written first in the name; the anion is written second in the name. Rule 2. When the formula unit contains two or more of the same polyatomic ion, that ion is written in parentheses with the subscript written outside the parentheses.
Note: parentheses and a subscript are not used unless more than one of a polyatomic ion is present in the formula unit e. Rule 3. If the cation is a metal ion with a fixed charge, the name of the cation is the same as the neutral element from which it is derived e. If the cation is a metal ion with a variable charge, the charge on the cation is indicated using a Roman numeral, in parentheses, immediately following the name of the cation e.
Rule 4. If the anion is a monatomic ion, the anion is named by adding the suffix -ide to the root of the element name e. Note: Greek prefixes are not used to indicate the number of atoms, or polyatomic ions, in the formula unit for the compound e.Nomenclaturea collection of rules for naming things, is important in science and in many other situations. The simplest of these are binary compoundsthose containing only two elements, but we will also consider how to name ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions, and one specific, very important class of compounds known as acids subsequent chapters in this text will focus on these compounds in great detail.Un psychosocial jobs
We will limit our attention here to inorganic compounds, compounds that are composed principally of elements other than carbon, and will follow the nomenclature guidelines proposed by IUPAC. The rules for organic compounds, in which carbon is the principle element, will be treated in a later chapter on organic chemistry. To name an inorganic compound, we need to consider the answers to several questions.
First, is the compound ionic or molecular? If the compound is ionic, does the metal form ions of only one type fixed charge or more than one type variable charge?Grup janda
Are the ions monatomic or polyatomic? If the compound is molecular, does it contain hydrogen? If so, does it also contain oxygen? From the answers we derive, we place the compound in an appropriate category and then name it accordingly.
The name of a binary compound containing monatomic ions consists of the name of the cation the name of the metal followed by the name of the anion the name of the nonmetallic element with its ending replaced by the suffix — ide.
Compounds containing polyatomic ions are named similarly to those containing only monatomic ions, except there is no need to change to an — ide ending, since the suffix is already present in the name of the anion.
Every day you encounter and use a large number of ionic compounds. Some of these compounds, where they are found, and what they are used for are listed in Table. Look at the label or ingredients list on the various products that you use during the next few days, and see if you run into any of those in this table, or find other ionic compounds that you could now name or write as a formula.
3.5: Ionic Compounds- Formulas and Names
Most of the transition metals can form two or more cations with different charges. Compounds of these metals with nonmetals are named with the same method as compounds in the first category, except the charge of the metal ion is specified by a Roman numeral in parentheses after the name of the metal.
The charge of the metal ion is determined from the formula of the compound and the charge of the anion. For example, consider binary ionic compounds of iron and chlorine.
In cases like this, the charge of the metal ion is included as a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the metal name.
These two compounds are then unambiguously named iron II chloride and iron III chloride, respectively. Out-of-date nomenclature used the suffixes — ic and — ous to designate metals with higher and lower charges, respectively: Iron III chloride, FeCl 3was previously called ferric chloride, and iron II chloride, FeCl 2was known as ferrous chloride.
Though this naming convention has been largely abandoned by the scientific community, it remains in use by some segments of industry. For example, you may see the words stannous fluoride on a tube of toothpaste.
This represents the formula SnF 2which is more properly named tin II fluoride. The other fluoride of tin is SnF 4which was previously called stannic fluoride but is now named tin IV fluoride. Name the following ionic compounds, which contain a metal that can have more than one ionic charge:. These charges are used in the names of the metal ions:.Ionic compounds consist of cations positive ions and anions negative ions.
In all cases, ionic compound naming gives the positively charged cation first, followed by the negatively charged anion. Here are the principal naming conventions for ionic compoundsalong with examples to show how they are used:.
A Roman numeral in parentheses, followed by the name of the element, is used for elements that can form more than one positive ion. There is no space between the element name and the parenthesis. This notation is usually seen with metals since they commonly display more than one oxidation state or valence.
You can use a chart to see the possible valences for the elements. Although Roman numerals are used to denote the ionic charge of cations, it is still common to see and use the endings -ous or -ic. These endings are added to the Latin name of the element e. The Roman numeral naming convention has wider appeal because many ions have more than two valences. Some polyatomic anions contain oxygen. These anions are called oxyanions.
When an element forms two oxyanionsthe one with less oxygen is given a name ending in -ite and the one with more oxygen are given a name that ends in -ate. In the case where there is a series of four oxyanions, the hypo- and per- prefixes are used in conjunction with the -ite and -ate suffixes.
The hypo- and per- prefixes indicate less oxygen and more oxygen, respectively.Church building dedication service ideas
Example: The bleaching agent sodium hypochlorite is NaClO. It is also sometimes called the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. These ions are named by adding the word hydrogen or dihydrogen in front of the name of the anion. It is still common to see and use the older naming convention in which the prefix bi- is used to indicate the addition of a single hydrogen ion.
Example: The classic example is the chemical name for water, H2O, which is dihydrogen monoxide or dihydrogen oxide. Dihydrogen dioxide, H 2 O 2is more commonly called hydrogen dioxide or hydrogen peroxide. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph.
She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. The -ide ending is added to the name of a monoatomic ion of an element. Example: Cu 3 P is copper phosphide or copper I phosphide.Polyatomic ions are ions made up of more than one atomic element.
This example problem demonstrates how to predict the molecular formulas of several compounds involving polyatomic ions. Predict the formulas of these compounds, which contain polyatomic ions.
The formulas of compounds containing polyatomic ions are found in much the same way as formulas are found for monoatomic ions. Make sure you are familiar with the most common polyatomic ions. Look at the locations of the elements on the Periodic Table. Atoms in the same column as each other tend to exhibit similar characteristics, including the number of electrons the elements would need to gain or lose to resemble the nearest noble gas atom.
To determine common ionic compounds formed by elements, keep the following in mind:. When you write the formula for an ionic compoundremember that the positive ion is always listed first. When there are two or more polyatomic ions in a formula, enclose the polyatomic ion in parentheses.
Write down the information you have for the charges of the component ions and balance them to answer the problem. The charges listed above for atoms within groups are the common chargesbut you should be aware that the elements sometimes take on different charges.
See the table of the valences of the elements for a list of the charges that the elements have been known to assume. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph.
She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated January 30, Group 6 ions nonmetals have -2 charges. Group 7 ions halides have -1 charges.Whether in high school or at a university, students will run into the challenge of having to memorize a great number of chemical objects.
One such set of objects, the polyatomic ions, tends to be a difficult set of objects to memorize due to the fact that students need to memorize the chemical composition of the ion as polyatomic ions always have more than one atom involved, the name of the ion, and amount of ionic charge associated with it as well.
However, you can skip the pain of rote memorization and successfully memorize the full set polyatomic atoms with practical memorization tools. The suffixes of the names of polyatomic ions have a pattern associated with them. For example, the sulfite ion has three oxygen atoms whereas the sulfate ion has four oxygen atoms. In a similar fashion to the suffix pattern, the prefix pattern involved in naming polyatomic ions shows extreme values of oxygen atoms in the ions.
For example, the perchlorate ion has four oxygen atoms, one more than the chlorate ion; the hypochlorite ion has a single oxygen atom, one less than the chlorite ion. Hydrogen atoms in polyatomic ions bring a positive charge into the ion. This means if you are comparing two ions and you see one has an additional hydrogen atom, you can know its negative charge has been reduced by one. This holds for the addition of multiple hydrogen atoms; for example, two hydrogen atoms reduce the negative charge of the ion by two.
How Ionic Compounds Are Named
If you know the charge of one ion, you need not remember the other. That is, if you know hydrogen phosphate has an ionic charge of -2, you can know dihydrogen phosphate has a charge of -1, since it introduces an extra hydrogen atom.
Sulfur and phosphorus play the center roles in polyatomic ions that are acids. Remember the following two rules:. Having obtained a Master of Science in psychology in East Asia, Damon Verial has been applying his knowledge to related topics since Having written professionally sincehe has been featured in financial publications such as SafeHaven and the McMillian Portfolio. He also runs a financial newsletter at Stock Barometer. About the Author.
Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.New Program! Chemistry Teacher Education. Considering Dual Enrollment?Onedrive msi
Learn More Now! Need a Chemistry Tutor? Details Here. Find Out How! Is Study Abroad Right for You? Find Out More. Is Study Abroad Affordable? Financial Aid Options. Apply Now! Willamette Promise. College Credit in High School. This text is published under creative commons licensing, for referencing and adaptation, please click here. Up until now we have been discussing only the elemental forms of atoms which are neutrally charged.
This is because the number of electrons negative in charge is equal to the number of protons positive in charge. The overall charge on the atom is zero, because the magnitude of the negative charge is the same as the magnitude of the positive charge. This one-to-one ratio of charges is not, however, the most common state for many elements.
Deviations from this ratio result in charged particles called ions. Throughout nature, things that are high in energy tend to move toward lower energy states. Lower energy configurations are more stable, so things are naturally drawn toward them. For atoms, these lower energy states are represented by the noble gas elements.
These elements have electron configurations characterized by full s and p subshells. This makes them stable and unreactive.
They are already at a low energy state, so they tend to stay as they are. The elements in the other groups have subshells that are not full, so they are unstable when compared to the noble gases.
This instability drives them toward the lower energy states represented by the noble gases that are nearby in the periodic table. There are two ways for an atom that does not have an octet of valence electrons to obtain an octet in its outer shell.
One way is the transfer of electrons between two atoms until both atoms have octets.Ka band
Because some atoms will lose electrons and some atoms will gain electrons, there is no overall change in the number of electrons, but with the transfer of electrons the individual atoms acquire a nonzero electric charge. Those that lose electrons become positively charged, and those that gain electrons become negatively charged.Played times.
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Delete Quiz. Question 1. What is the formula for sodium nitrate? NaNO 2. NaNO 3. What ionic compound is form between lithium and carbonate? LiCO 3. LiC 3. What is the formula for ammonium sulfate?
NH 42 SO 4. What is the name of the following compound: Pb 3 PO 4 4. Lead IV Phosphte. Lead Phosphate. Lead IV Phosphide. Lead Phosphide. What is ammonium phosphate's formula? NH 43 PO 4. What is the name of K 3 PO 4? Tripotassium Phosphate. Tripotassium Phosphite. What is the name of Al NO 3 3?
Aluminum III nitrate. Name the following ionic compound: Cr NO 2 3. The proper formula for magnesium hydroxide:. Mg 2 OH. Mg OH 2. If copper II and phosphate bond together, the resulting chemical formula would be:. CuPO 4.
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